Stoke by Edward Hasted
THE last parish undescribed in this hundred, lies the next southward from that of Alhallows. A small part of it is within the hundred of Shamel. This place, as appears by the Textus Roffensis, was called Andscohesham in the time of the Saxons. In Domesday it is called Estoches and Stoches ; and in later deeds by its present name of Stoke.
EADBERHT, king of Kent, gave part of his land for the good of his soul, and the remission of his sins, to the bishopric of St. Andrew, in Rochester, and Ealdulf, bishop of it, in the district called Hohg, at a place there called Andscohesham, containing, by estimation, ten ploughlands, together with all things belonging to it, in fields, woods, meadows, fisheries, saltpans, &c. according to the known and established bounds of it; which gift was confirmed by archbishop Nothelm and king Æthelberht, in the metropolitical city, in 738. This estate was afterwards wrested from the church of Rochester during the troublesome times of the Danish wars, and was afterwards purchased by earl Godwin of two men, who held it of the bishop of Rochester, and sold it without the bishop's knowledge. The earl was succeeded in it by his eldest son, earl Harold, afterwards king of England, after whose death, William the Conqueror attaining the crown, seised on all the late king's estates, and gave this manor, together with other land at Stoke, among other premises, to Odo, bishop of Baieux, his half brother. But Lanfranc, archbishop of Canterbury, recovered the manor of Stoke from him, in the solemn assembly held at Pinenden-heath, in 1076, and afterwards restored it, with its church, to Gundulph, bishop of Rochester, and the church of St. Andrew, (fn. 1) which gift was confirmed by archbishop Anselm, and by several of his successors, archbishops of Canterbury.
The manor of Stoke is thus described in the general survey of Domesday, taken about four years afterwards, under the general title of the bishop of Rochester's lands.
In How hundred. The same bishop (of Rochester) holds Estoches. In the time of king Edward the Confessor, it was taxed at five sulings, and now at three. The arable land is five carucates. In demesne there are two carucates, and 10 villeins, with five borderers, having 4 carucates. There is a church, and 4 servants, and 4 acres of meadow. In the time of king Edward, and afterwards, and now it was, and is worth eight pounds and 20 pence, and yet he who holds it pays 13
pounds and 20 pence. This manor was, and is belonging to the bishopric of Rochester; but earl Godwin, in the time of king Edward, bought it of two men, who held it of the bishop, and this sale was made without his knowledge. But after that, William being king, Lanfranc the archbishop recovered it against the bishop of Baieux, and from thence the church of Rochester is now seised of it.
Gundulph, bishop of Rochester, having divided the revenues of his church between himself and his convent, allotted this manor to the share of the monks,
ad victum , that is, to the use of their refectory; (fn. 2) and the same was confirmed to them, by several of the succeeding kings, archbishops, and bishops of Rochester. (fn. 3)
On bishop Gilbert de Glanvill's coming to the see of Rochester in 1185, he found it much impoverished, by the gifts of several of the best estates belonging to it made by bishop Gundulph, to the monks of his priory. This occasioned a dispute between them, the bishop claiming this manor, among others, as having belonged to the maintenance of his table. In consequence of which, though he wrested the church of Stoke from them, yet they continued in possession of this manor, with its appendages, till the dissolution of the priory in the reign of king Henry VIII.
In the 7th year of king Edward I. the bishop of Rochester claimed certain liberties, by the grant of king Henry I. in all his lands and fees, and others by antient custom, in the lands of his priory in Stoke, and other lands belonging to his church; (fn. 4) which were allowed by the jury, as they were again in the 21st year of that reign, upon a Quo warranto ; and again in the 7th year of king Edward II. and they were confirmed by letters of inspeximus , granted by king Edward III. in his 30th year. In the 21st year of king Edward I. on another Quo warranto , the prior of Rochester claimed that he and his predecessors had, in the manors of Stoke, &c. view of frank-pledge , from beyond memory, which was allowed by the jury. He also claimed free-warren, by grant from Henry I. but the jury found that neither he nor his predecessors had used it, therefore it was determined, that they should remain without that liberty, but king Edward I. by his charter, in his 23d year, granted that liberty to the prior and convent in all their demesne lands of this manor, among others; so that no one should enter on them, either to hunt, or to take any thing which belonged to warren, without their licence, on the forfeiture of ten pounds. In the 15th year of king Edward I. the manor of Stoke was valued at nine pounds.
On the dissolution of the priory of Rochester in the 32d year of king Henry VIII. this manor was surrendered, with the other possessions of it, into the king's hands, who presently after, in his 33d year, settled it, on his new-founded dean and chapter of Rochester, with whom the inheritance of it continues at this time.
There is a court-leet and court-baron held for this manor.
In 1720, Jacob Sawbridge, one of the South-Sea directors, purchased the lease of the manor-farm of Stoke, under the yearly rent of twenty eight pounds, clear of all taxes, the rack rent of which, was ninety pounds per annum. The present lessee is the Right Hon. John, earl of Darnley.
TUDERS , formerly spelt Teuders , is a manor in this parish, which antiently was held of the bishop of Rochester, as of his manor of Stoke.
In the 12th year of king John, this estate was held by Hugo de Stokes, as half a knight's fee, of the bishop of Rochester, by knight's service. (fn. 5) His descendant, Theodore de Stokes, afterwards possessed it, (fn. 6) and ingrafted his name on it; for from that time this manor was called Theodores, and for shortness, Tudors; and Philipott says, he had seen an antient roll of Kentish arms, wherein Tudor of Stoke bore the same coat armour with Owen Theodore, vulgarly called Tuder, being Azure, a chevron between four helmets argent.
After this name was extinct here, this manor came into that of Woodward; one of whom, Edward Woodward, possessed it at the latter end of Henry VIII's reign. His descendant, in the beginning of the reign of queen Elizabeth, conveyed it to John Wilkins gent. of Stoke parsonage, who died in the 19th year of that reign, and was succeeded in it by his kinsman and heir, George Wilkins, gent. who married Elizabeth, one of the daughters of Mr. John Copinger, of Alhallows, by whom he left no issue. He lies buried in this church. His arms were, Gules, on a chevron argent, a demi lion between two martlets sable, between three welk shells or ; one of whose descendants, about the beginning of king Charles I's reign, alienated it to Bright, and Edward Bright, clerk, died possessed of it in the year 1670, on which this estate, by virtue of a mortgage term, passed into the possession of William Norcliffe, esq. of the Temple, London, whose widow possessed it after his decease, and since her death it is become the property of the Rev. Mr. Henry Southwell, of Wisbeach, in the Isle of Ely, who is the present owner of it.
Hugo de Stokes, owner of this manor in the reign of king Stephen, gave the tithes of it to the monks of St. Andrew's, in Rochester, to whom it was confirmed by archbishop Theobald, and the prior and convent of Canterbury, (fn. 7) and by several bishops of Rochester. (fn. 8)
At the dissolution of the priory, in the 32d year of king Henry VIII. this portion of tithes, together with the rest of the possessions of the monastery, was surrendered into the king's hands, who settled it next year, on his new-erected dean and chapter of Rochester, where it now remains.
This portion of tithes, called Tudor's portion , was surveyed soon after the death of king Charles I. in 1649, when it was returned, that the same arose out of the tenement of Tudors, and several other tenements, called Bartons, in the parish of Stoke, with six fields, containing by estimation, fifty-three acres; the improved value of which premises was five pounds per annum, all which were let by the late dean and chapter, anno 3 king Charles I. to Sarah Wilkins, at 6s. and 8d. per annum.
The present lessee is Baldwin Duppa Duppa, of Hollingborne, in this county.
MALMAYNES is a manor in this parish, now commonly known by the name of Maamans Hall , which was given, as well as that of Stoke, by the Conqueror, at his accession to the crown, to his half-brother, Odo, as has been already mentioned; and when archbishop Lanfranc recovered the latter from the bishop, at the noted assembly of the county at Pinenden, as having before belonged to the church of Rochester, this manor was then likewise in his possession. Accordingly it is thus entered in the survey of Domesday, under the general title of that prelate's lands:
The same Ansgotus (de Rochester) holds of the bishop (of Baieux) Stoches. It was taxed at two sulings. The arable land is two carucates, and there are in demesne . . . with seven borderers. There is one fishery of two shillings. In the time of king Edward, and afterwards, it was worth one hundred shillings, now one hundred and ten shillings. Anschil held it of king Edward.
On the disgrace of the bishop of Baieux in 1083, this, among the rest of his estates, was confilcated to the crown. After which it became part of the possessions of the family of Malmaines, a branch of which resided here, and fixed their name on it. John de Malmaines, son of Henry, died possessed of it in the 10th year of king Edward II. In the 20th year of king Edward III. the heirs of Thomas de Malmayns, of Hoo, paid aid for three quarters of a knight's fee, which John Malmayns before held here of the king.
Richard Filiot seems soon afterwards to have been in possession of this manor, which passed from him into the family of Carew, and Nicholas Carew, of Bedington, in Surry, died possessed of it in the 14th year of king Richard II. His son, Nicholas de Careu, armiger, de Bedington, as he wrote himself, (fn. 9) in the 9th year of king Henry V. conveyed this manor by sale to Iden; from which name it passed, in the latter end of king Henry VIII's reign, to John Parker, whose arms were, Sable, on a fess ingrailed argent, between three hinds tripping or, three torteauxes, each charged with a pheon of the second, which coat is now quartered by lord Teynham. (fn. 10) His sole daughter and heir, Elizabeth, carried it in marriage to John Roper, esq. of Linsted, who was first knighted, and afterwards created baron of Teynham, in this county. His son, Christopher, lord Teynham, died in 1622, and by his will devised this manor to his second son, William Roper, esq. who alienated it, in the reign of king Charles I. to Jones, in whose descendants it continued till the reign of king George I. when it passed by sale from them to Baldwin Duppa, esq. who died in 1737, and his son, Baldwin Duppa, esq. of Hollingborne-hill, possessed it at his death in 1764, since which it has continued in the same family the present owner, being Baldwin Duppa Duppa, esq. of that place.
Sir John Malmeyns, of this parish, in 1303, made his petition to Robert, abbot, and the convent of Boxley, appropriators of this church; that as he was, on account of his house being situated at such a distance from the parish church, often prevented from attending divine service there, he might be enabled to build an oratory, for himself and his family, on his own estate, and might have a priest to celebrate divine services in it. To which the abbot and convent assented, provided, as far as might be, no prejudice might by it accrue to the mother church, themselves, or the vicars of it, which licence was confirmed by Thomas, bishop of Rochester, that year.
RALPH MALESMÆINS, about the reign of king Henry I. became a monk of the priory of St. Andrew, in Rochester, and on that account granted to the monks there his tithes of Stoches ; and after his death Robert Malesmæins, his son, confirmed it, as did Theobald, archbishop of Canterbury, Ralph, prior and the convent of Canterbury, and several of the succeeding bishops of Rochester.
At the dissolution of the priory of Rochester, in the 32d year of king Henry VIII. this portion of tithes was surrendered into the king's hands, who granted it the nextyear, by his dotation charter, to his new-erected dean and chapter of Rochester, where the inheritance of it now remains.
The present lessee, under the dean and chapter, is Baldwin Duppa Duppa, esq. of Hollingborne-hill.
Reginald de Cobham, son of John de Cobham, possessed lands in this parish, and in the 14th year of king Edward III. procured free-warren in all his demesne lands in Stoke.
King Henry VIII. in his 32d year, granted to George Brooke, lord Cobham, a marsh, called Coleman's, alias Bridge-marsh, lying in Oysterland, alias Eastland, in Stoke; and other premises, parcel of the priory of Christ-church, to hold in capite, by knights service.
RICHARD WHITE, of Chalk, gave by will in 1722, an annual sum of money to the poor of this parish not receiving alms, vested in Mr. John Prebble, and of the yearly product of ten shillings.
STOKE is within the ECCLESIASTICAL JURISDICTION of the diocese and deanry of Rochester. The church, is dedicated to St. Peter. In the chancel are these brasses: one for John Wilkins, gentleman, born in this parish, married Elizabeth, daughter of John Coppinger, esq. of Alhallows, obt. s. p . 1575, arms, Wilkins impaling Coppinger, and other coats, one for William Cardiff, B. D. vicar, obt. 1415; another for Frances Grimestone, daughter of Ralph Coppinger, esq. and wife of Henry Grimestone, esq. obt. 1608.
This church was antiently an appendage to the manor of Stoke.
King Henry I. gave his tithe of Stoke to the church of St. Andrew, and Gundulph, bishop of Rochester, and when he allotted the manor of Stoke to the share of the monks of his convent, the church passed as an appendage to it, and it continued with them, till bishop Gilbert de Glanvill took this church, among other premises, from them, and annexed it again to his see, where it remained till Richard, bishop of Rochester, with the consent of his chapter, granted the appropriation of it to the abbot and convent of Boxley for ever; saving the portions of tithes, which the prior and convent used to take, from the demesnes of Sir Henry Malmeyns, and those arising from the free tenement of Theodore de Stokes, and the portion of four sacks of wheat due to the almoner of Rochester, and of four sacks of wheat due to the lessees of St. Bartholomew, which they used to take by the hands of the rector of the church, and which for the future they should receive by the hands of the abbot and convent, saving also all episcopal right, and a competent vicarage to be assessed by him, which instrument was dated in 1244. Soon after which, the bishop endowed this vicarage as follows:
First, he decreed, that the perpetual vicar of it should have all the altarage, with all small tithes, excepting hay, which should remain to the parson; and that he should have the chapel, and the cemetery of it, and the crost adjoining, and one mark of silver yearly, at the hand of the parson of Stoke, and that the vicar should sustain all burthens due and accustomed, and contribute a third part to the repair and amendment of the chancel, books, vestments, and other ornaments.
Richard, bishop of Rochester, in 1280, at the instance of the prior and convent of Rochester, made enquiry in what manner the monks used antiently to retain their tithes in their manors, and in what manner they used to impart them to the parish churches of the same, when it was certified, that in the manor of Stoke, the parish church took the whole tithes of sheaves only, but of other small tithes, as well as of mills and hay, it did not, nor used to take any thing; and he decreed, that the parish church of Stoke should be content with the tenths of the sheaves of all kind of corn only. All which was confirmed to them by John, archbishop of Canterbury, by his let of inspeximus , in the year 1281.
In 1315 the abbot and convent of Boxley, as appropriators of the church of Stoke, claimed an exemption of tithes for a mill newly erected by them in the parish of Halstow, for the herbage of their marsh of Horsemershe, and for the rushes increasing, and the lambs feeding in it, before Walter, archbishop of Canterbury, and his commissaries, then visiting this diocese, as metropolitan, which claim was allowed by the decree of the archbishop, &c. that year.
On the dissolution of the abbey of Boxley, in the 29th year of king Henry VIII. the church and vicarage of Stoke, together with the rest of the possessions of that monastery, were surrendered into the king's hands.
Soon after which, this rectory, with the advowson of the vicarage, was granted by the king to William Goodwyn, to hold in capite by knights service, and he, in the 36th year of that reign, alienated it with the king's licence, to John Parke, whose only daughter, Elizabeth, carried these premises in marriage to John Roper, esq. of Linsted, afterwards created lord Teynham; who in the 9th year of queen Elizabeth, alienated them to John Wilkins, gent. (fn. 11) who levied a fine of them in Easter term, anno 17 of that reign, and died possessed of them in the 19th year of it. He was succeeded in this parsonage and advowson by his kinsman and heir, George Wilkins, one of whose descendants, in the beginning of king Charles I's reign, alienated them to Bright, from which name they were sold to Baldwin Duppa, esq. since which they have passed in like manner as Malmains-hall, before described, to Baldwin Duppa Duppa, esq. the present proprietor of the parsonage and advowson of the vicarage of Stoke. The rectory of Stoke pays a fee farm to the church of ten shillings and eight-pence per annum.
The vicarage of Stoke is a discharged living in the king's books, of the clear yearly certified value of thirty pounds, the yearly tenths being 17s. 2d.
In 1650, this vicarage, on the survey then taken of it, was valued at forty pounds, (fn. 12) Mr. Thomas Miller, then incumbent.
NICHOLAS DE CARREU, senior, lord of the manor of Malmeynes, in this parish, with the licence of king Edward III. which was afterwards further renewed and confirmed by king Richard II. in the 12th year of that reign, anno 1388, founded A CHANTRY for two priests in this church of Stoke; and he then, by his deed, endowed it with one messuage and one acre of land, in this parish, for their habitation and their maintenance, an annual rent of twenty-four marcs out of his manor, called Malemeynesemanere, which was confirmed by William, bishop of Rochester, who with the consent of his convent, made rules and orders for their presentation and admission, from time to time, and for the good order and celebration of divine rites in it, to which instrument the bishop, the prior and convent of Rochester, Nicholas de Carreu, and John Maister, and John Buset, chantry priests, severally set their seals.